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Strong or severe thunderstorms include some of the most dangerous weather phenomena, including large hail, strong winds, and tornadoes.
Some of the most persistent severe thunderstorms, known as supercells , rotate as do cyclones. While most thunderstorms move with the mean wind flow through the layer of the troposphere that they occupy, vertical wind shear sometimes causes a deviation in their course at a right angle to the wind shear direction.
Thunderstorms result from the rapid upward movement of warm, moist air, sometimes along a front. As the rising air reaches its dew point temperature, water vapor condenses into water droplets or ice, reducing pressure locally within the thunderstorm cell.
Any precipitation falls the long distance through the clouds towards the Earth's surface. As the droplets fall, they collide with other droplets and become larger.
The falling droplets create a downdraft as it pulls cold air with it, and this cold air spreads out at the Earth's surface, occasionally causing strong winds that are commonly associated with thunderstorms.
Thunderstorms can form and develop in any geographic location but most frequently within the mid-latitude , where warm, moist air from tropical latitudes collides with cooler air from polar latitudes.
Thunderstorms, and the phenomena that occur along with them, pose great hazards. Damage that results from thunderstorms is mainly inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, and flash flooding caused by heavy precipitation.
Stronger thunderstorm cells are capable of producing tornadoes and waterspouts. There are four types of thunderstorms: single-cell , multi-cell cluster , multi-cell lines and supercells.
Supercell thunderstorms are the strongest and most severe. Mesoscale convective systems formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics can be responsible for the development of hurricanes.
Dry thunderstorms , with no precipitation, can cause the outbreak of wildfires from the heat generated from the cloud-to-ground lightning that accompanies them.
Several means are used to study thunderstorms: weather radar , weather stations , and video photography. Past civilizations held various myths concerning thunderstorms and their development as late as the 18th century.
Beyond the Earth's atmosphere, thunderstorms have also been observed on the planets of Jupiter , Saturn , Neptune , and, probably, Venus.
Warm air has a lower density than cool air, so warmer air rises upwards and cooler air will settle at the bottom  this effect can be seen with a hot air balloon.
The moist air rises, and, as it does so, it cools and some of the water vapor in that rising air condenses. If enough instability is present in the atmosphere, this process will continue long enough for cumulonimbus clouds to form and produce lightning and thunder.
Meteorological indices such as convective available potential energy CAPE and the lifted index can be used to assist in determining potential upward vertical development of clouds.
All thunderstorms, regardless of type, go through three stages: the developing stage , the mature stage , and the dissipation stage.
Depending on the conditions present in the atmosphere, each of these three stages take an average of 30 minutes. The first stage of a thunderstorm is the cumulus stage or developing stage.
During this stage, masses of moisture are lifted upwards into the atmosphere. The trigger for this lift can be solar illumination , where the heating of the ground produces thermals , or where two winds converge forcing air upwards, or where winds blow over terrain of increasing elevation.
The moisture carried upward cools into liquid drops of water due to lower temperatures at high altitude, which appear as cumulus clouds.
As the water vapor condenses into liquid, latent heat is released, which warms the air, causing it to become less dense than the surrounding, drier air.
The air tends to rise in an updraft through the process of convection hence the term convective precipitation. This process creates a low-pressure zone within and beneath the forming thunderstorm.
In a typical thunderstorm, approximately million kilograms of water vapor are lifted into the Earth's atmosphere. In the mature stage of a thunderstorm, the warmed air continues to rise until it reaches an area of warmer air and can rise no farther.
Often this 'cap' is the tropopause. The air is instead forced to spread out, giving the storm a characteristic anvil shape. The resulting cloud is called cumulonimbus incus.
The water droplets coalesce into larger and heavier droplets and freeze to become ice particles. As these fall, they melt to become rain.
If the updraft is strong enough, the droplets are held aloft long enough to become so large that they do not melt completely but fall as hail.
While updrafts are still present, the falling rain drags the surrounding air with it, creating downdrafts as well. The simultaneous presence of both an updraft and a downdraft marks the mature stage of the storm and produces cumulonimbus clouds.
During this stage, considerable internal turbulence can occur, which manifests as strong winds, severe lightning, and even tornadoes. Typically, if there is little wind shear , the storm will rapidly enter the dissipating stage and 'rain itself out',  but, if there is sufficient change in wind speed or direction, the downdraft will be separated from the updraft, and the storm may become a supercell , where the mature stage can sustain itself for several hours.
In the dissipation stage, the thunderstorm is dominated by the downdraft. If atmospheric conditions do not support super cellular development, this stage occurs rather quickly, approximately 20—30 minutes into the life of the thunderstorm.
The downdraft will push down out of the thunderstorm, hit the ground and spread out. This phenomenon is known as a downburst. The cool air carried to the ground by the downdraft cuts off the inflow of the thunderstorm, the updraft disappears and the thunderstorm will dissipate.
Thunderstorms in an atmosphere with virtually no vertical wind shear weaken as soon as they send out an outflow boundary in all directions, which then quickly cuts off its inflow of relatively warm, moist air, and kills the thunderstorm's further growth.
This can cause downbursts, a potential hazardous condition for aircraft to fly through, as a substantial change in wind speed and direction occurs, resulting in a decrease of airspeed and the subsequent reduction in lift for the aircraft.
The stronger the outflow boundary is, the stronger the resultant vertical wind shear becomes. There are four main types of thunderstorms: single-cell, multi-cell, squall line also called multi-cell line and supercell.
Which type forms depends on the instability and relative wind conditions at different layers of the atmosphere " wind shear ".
Single-cell thunderstorms form in environments of low vertical wind shear and last only 20—30 minutes. The supercell is the strongest of the thunderstorms, most commonly associated with large hail, high winds, and tornado formation.
Precipitable water values of greater than This term technically applies to a single thunderstorm with one main updraft. Also known as air-mass thunderstorms , these are the typical summer thunderstorms in many temperate locales.
They also occur in the cool unstable air that often follows the passage of a cold front from the sea during winter.
Within a cluster of thunderstorms, the term "cell" refers to each separate principal updraft. Thunderstorm cells occasionally form in isolation, as the occurrence of one thunderstorm can develop an outflow boundary that sets up new thunderstorm development.
Such storms are rarely severe and are a result of local atmospheric instability; hence the term "air mass thunderstorm". When such storms have a brief period of severe weather associated with them, it is known as a pulse severe storm.
Pulse severe storms are poorly organized and occur randomly in time and space, making them difficult to forecast. This is the most common type of thunderstorm development.
Mature thunderstorms are found near the center of the cluster, while dissipating thunderstorms exist on their downwind side. Multicell storms form as clusters of storms but may then evolve into one or more squall lines.
They often arise from convective updrafts in or near mountain ranges and linear weather boundaries, such as strong cold fronts or troughs of low pressure.
These type of storms are stronger than the single-cell storm, yet much weaker than the supercell storm. Hazards with the multicell cluster include moderate-sized hail, flash flooding, and weak tornadoes.
A squall line is an elongated line of severe thunderstorms that can form along or ahead of a cold front. Supercell storms are large, usually severe , quasi-steady-state storms that form in an environment where wind speed or wind direction varies with height " wind shear " , and they have separate downdrafts and updrafts i.
These storms normally have such powerful updrafts that the top of the supercell storm cloud or anvil can break through the troposphere and reach into the lower levels of the stratosphere.
In fact, research has shown that most tornadoes occur from this type of thunderstorm. A severe thunderstorm warning is issued if a thunderstorm becomes severe, or will soon turn severe.
However, multicell , supercell , and squall lines represent the most common forms of thunderstorms that produce severe weather.
A mesoscale convective system MCS is a complex of thunderstorms that becomes organized on a scale larger than the individual thunderstorms but smaller than extratropical cyclones , and normally persists for several hours or more.
Most mesoscale convective systems develop overnight and continue their lifespan through the next day. Forms of MCS that develop in the tropics are found in use either the Intertropical Convergence Zone or monsoon troughs , generally within the warm season between spring and fall.
More intense systems form over land than over water. They form at high latitudes during the cold season. The two major ways thunderstorms move are via advection of the wind and propagation along outflow boundaries towards sources of greater heat and moisture.
Many thunderstorms move with the mean wind speed through the Earth's troposphere , the lowest 8 kilometres 5.
Weaker thunderstorms are steered by winds closer to the Earth's surface than stronger thunderstorms, as the weaker thunderstorms are not as tall.
Organized, long-lived thunderstorm cells and complexes move at a right angle to the direction of the vertical wind shear vector. If the gust front, or leading edge of the outflow boundary, races ahead of the thunderstorm, its motion will accelerate in tandem.
This is more of a factor with thunderstorms with heavy precipitation HP than with thunderstorms with low precipitation LP. When thunderstorms merge, which is most likely when numerous thunderstorms exist in proximity to each other, the motion of the stronger thunderstorm normally dictates the future motion of the merged cell.
The stronger the mean wind, the less likely other processes will be involved in storm motion. On weather radar , storms are tracked by using a prominent feature and tracking it from scan to scan.
A back-building thunderstorm, commonly referred to as a training thunderstorm , is a thunderstorm in which new development takes place on the upwind side usually the west or southwest side in the Northern Hemisphere , such that the storm seems to remain stationary or propagate in a backward direction.
Though the storm often appears stationary on radar, or even moving upwind, this is an illusion. The storm is really a multi-cell storm with new, more vigorous cells that form on the upwind side, replacing older cells that continue to drift downwind.
In Rapid City, South Dakota , in , an unusual alignment of winds at various levels of the atmosphere combined to produce a continuously training set of cells that dropped an enormous quantity of rain upon the same area, resulting in devastating flash flooding.
Each year, many people are killed or seriously injured by severe thunderstorms despite the advance warning [ citation needed ]. While severe thunderstorms are most common in the spring and summer , they can occur at just about any time of the year.
Cloud-to-ground lightning frequently occurs within the phenomena of thunderstorms and have numerous hazards towards landscapes and populations.
One of the more significant hazards lightning can pose is the wildfires they are capable of igniting. Acid rain is also a frequent risk produced by lightning.
Distilled water has a neutral pH of 7. Acid rain can damage infrastructures containing calcite or certain other solid chemical compounds.
In ecosystems, acid rain can dissolve plant tissues of vegetations and increase acidification process in bodies of water and in soil , resulting in deaths of marine and terrestrial organisms.
Any thunderstorm that produces hail that reaches the ground is known as a hailstorm. Hail is more common along mountain ranges because mountains force horizontal winds upwards known as orographic lifting , thereby intensifying the updrafts within thunderstorms and making hail more likely.
Cheyenne, Wyoming is North America's most hail-prone city with an average of nine to ten hailstorms per season. Hail can cause serious damage, notably to automobiles , aircraft, skylights, glass-roofed structures, livestock , and most commonly, farmers' crops.
When hail stones exceed 13 millimetres 0. Wheat, corn, soybeans, and tobacco are the most sensitive crops to hail damage. One of the earliest recorded incidents occurred around the 9th century in Roopkund , Uttarakhand , India.
A tornado is a violent, rotating column of air in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud otherwise known as a thundercloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Tornadoes come in many sizes but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel , whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.
The Fujita scale and the Enhanced Fujita Scale rate tornadoes by damage caused. An EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees but does not cause significant damage to structures.
An EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers. Waterspouts have similar characteristics as tornadoes, characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current that form over bodies of water, connecting to large cumulonimbus clouds.
Waterspouts are generally classified as forms of tornadoes, or more specifically, non- supercelled tornadoes that develop over large bodies of water.
Flash flooding is the process where a landscape, most notably an urban environment, is subjected to rapid floods. Flash floods are most common in densely populated urban environments, where few plants and bodies of water are present to absorb and contain the extra water.
Flash flooding can be hazardous to small infrastructure, such as bridges, and weakly constructed buildings. Plants and crops in agricultural areas can be destroyed and devastated by the force of raging water.
Automobiles parked within affected areas can also be displaced. Soil erosion can occur as well, exposing risks of landslide phenomena.
Downburst winds can produce numerous hazards to landscapes experiencing thunderstorms. Downburst winds are generally very powerful, and are often mistaken for wind speeds produced by tornadoes,  due to the concentrated amount of force exerted by their straight-horizontal characteristic.
Downburst winds can be hazardous to unstable, incomplete, or weakly constructed infrastructures and buildings.
Agricultural crops, and other plants in nearby environments can be uprooted and damaged. Aircraft engaged in takeoff or landing can crash.
Downburst winds are usually formed in areas when high pressure air systems of downdrafts begin to sink and displace the air masses below it, due to their higher density.
When these downdrafts reach the surface, they spread out and turn into the destructive straight-horizontal winds.
Thunderstorm asthma is the triggering of an asthma attack by environmental conditions directly caused by a local thunderstorm. During a thunderstorm, pollen grains can absorb moisture and then burst into much smaller fragments with these fragments being easily dispersed by wind.
While larger pollen grains are usually filtered by hairs in the nose, the smaller pollen fragments are able to pass through and enter the lungs, triggering the asthma attack.
Most thunderstorms come and go fairly uneventfully; however, any thunderstorm can become severe , and all thunderstorms, by definition, present the danger of lightning.
Preparedness refers to precautions that should be taken before a thunderstorm. Some preparedness takes the form of general readiness as a thunderstorm can occur at any time of the day or year.
The National Weather Service NWS in the United States recommends several precautions that people should take if thunderstorms are likely to occur: .
The American Red Cross recommends that people follow these precautions if a storm is imminent or in progress: . The NWS stopped recommending the "lightning crouch" in as it doesn't provide a significant level of protection and will not significantly lower the risk of being killed or injured from a nearby lightning strike.
Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, even in the polar regions, with the greatest frequency in tropical rainforest areas, where they may occur nearly daily.
At any given time approximately 2, thunderstorms are occurring on Earth. Other cities known for frequent storm activity include Darwin , Caracas , Manila and Mumbai.
Thunderstorms are associated with the various monsoon seasons around the globe, and they populate the rainbands of tropical cyclones. Thunderstorms are rare in polar regions because of cold surface temperatures.
Some of the most powerful thunderstorms over the United States occur in the Midwest and the Southern states. These storms can produce large hail and powerful tornadoes.
Thunderstorms are relatively uncommon along much of the West Coast of the United States ,  but they occur with greater frequency in the inland areas, particularly the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys of California.
In spring and summer, they occur nearly daily in certain areas of the Rocky Mountains as part of the North American Monsoon regime.
In the Northeast , storms take on similar characteristics and patterns as the Midwest, but with less frequency and severity.
During the summer, air-mass thunderstorms are an almost daily occurrence over central and southern parts of Florida. If the quantity of water that is condensed in and subsequently precipitated from a cloud is known, then the total energy of a thunderstorm can be calculated.
This is on the same order of magnitude of energy released within a tropical cyclone, and more energy than that released during the atomic bomb blast at Hiroshima, Japan in The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor results show that gamma rays and antimatter particles positrons can be generated in powerful thunderstorms.
TGFs are brief bursts occurring inside thunderstorms and associated with lightning. The streams of positrons and electrons collide higher in the atmosphere to generate more gamma rays.
In more contemporary times, thunderstorms have taken on the role of a scientific curiosity. Every spring, storm chasers head to the Great Plains of the United States and the Canadian Prairies to explore the scientific aspects of storms and tornadoes through use of videotaping.
Thunderstorms strongly influenced many early civilizations. Greeks believed that they were battles waged by Zeus , who hurled lightning bolts forged by Hephaestus.
Some American Indian tribes associated thunderstorms with the Thunderbird , who they believed was a servant of the Great Spirit.
The Norse considered thunderstorms to occur when Thor went to fight Jötnar , with the thunder and lightning being the effect of his strikes with the hammer Mjölnir.
Hinduism recognizes Indra as the god of rain and thunderstorms. Christian doctrine accepts that fierce storms are the work of God. These ideas were still within the mainstream as late as the 18th century.
Martin Luther was out walking when a thunderstorm began, causing him to pray to God for being saved and promising to become a monk.
Thunderstorms, evidenced by flashes of lightning , on Jupiter have been detected and are associated with clouds where water may exist as both a liquid and ice, suggesting a mechanism similar to that on Earth.
Water is a polar molecule that can carry a charge, so it is capable of creating the charge separation needed to produce lightning. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Type of weather with lightning and thunder. For other uses, see Electrical storm disambiguation. For the musical ensemble, see Thirty Seconds to Mars.
Thunderstorms arise when layers of warm, moist air rise in a large, swift updraft to cooler regions of the atmosphere.
There the moisture contained in the updraft condenses to form towering cumulonimbus clouds and, eventually, precipitation.
Columns of cooled air then sink earthward, striking the ground with strong downdrafts and horizontal winds.
At the same time, electrical charges accumulate on cloud particles water droplets and ice. Lightning discharges occur when the accumulated electric charge becomes sufficiently large.
Lightning heats the air it passes through so intensely and quickly that shock waves are produced; these shock waves are heard as claps and rolls of thunder.
On occasion, severe thunderstorms are accompanied by swirling vortices of air that become concentrated and powerful enough to form tornadoes.
The temperate and tropical regions of the world, therefore, are the most prone to thunderstorms. In the United States the areas of maximum thunderstorm activity are the Florida peninsula more than 90 thunderstorm days per year , the Gulf Coast 70—80 days per year , and the mountains of New Mexico 50—60 days per year.
Central Europe and Asia average 20 to 60 thunderstorm days per year. It has been estimated that at any one moment there are approximately 1, thunderstorms in progress throughout the world.
This article covers two major aspects of thunderstorms: their meteorology i. For separate coverage of related phenomena not covered in this article, see tornado , ball lightning , bead lightning , and red sprites and blue jets.
Thunderstorms are no exception to this pattern. Under such conditions the cooler air tends to sink, displacing the warmer air upward. If a sufficiently large volume of air rises, an updraft a strong current of rising air will be produced.
If the updraft is moist, the water will condense and form clouds; condensation in turn will release latent heat energy , further fueling upward air motion and increasing the instability.
Once upward air motions are initiated in an unstable atmosphere, rising parcels of warm air accelerate as they rise through their cooler surroundings because they have a lower density and are more buoyant.
This motion can set up a pattern of convection wherein heat and moisture are transported upward and cooler and drier air is transported downward.
Areas of the atmosphere where vertical motion is relatively strong are called cells, and when they carry air to the upper troposphere the lowest layer of the atmosphere , they are called deep cells.
Thunderstorms develop when deep cells of moist convection become organized and merge, and then produce precipitation and ultimately lightning and thunder.
Upward motions can be initiated in a variety of ways in the atmosphere. A common mechanism is by the heating of a land surface and the adjacent layers of air by sunlight.
If surface heating is sufficient, the temperatures of the lowest layers of air will rise faster than those of layers aloft, and the air will become unstable.Columns of cooled air then sink earthward, striking the ground with strong downdrafts and horizontal winds. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. Tintagel — King Leck Mich Am Arsch Country. Suchtbericht 2020 History. The trigger for this lift can be solar illuminationwhere the heating of Manig Loeser ground produces thermalsor where two winds converge forcing air upwards, or where winds blow over terrain of increasing elevation. Winter Spring Kartendealer Autumn. Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik. Aircraft engaged in takeoff or landing can crash. A thunderstorm near HavelseeSky Deutschland Konto.